An Overview of V2G Technology in the Development of Sustainable Electric Energy Systems
Abstraction–To address the use and direction of electricity utilizing Plug-in ( Hybrid ) Electric Vehicles ( P ( H ) EVs ) so that we can accomplish our maximal potencies. In order to cut down fuel cost and oil dependence, this paper describes the basic construction about Vehicle to Grid ( V2G ) engineering and how we can utilize this engineering to cut down green house gases.Vehicle-to-grid ( V2G ) engineering describes a system in which power is sold to the public-service corporation by grid connected P ( H ) EV’s electric-drive motor or battery storage or both. Alternatively, when the auto batteries need bear downing, the power flow is reversed and electricity from the power grid is used to bear down the battery. V2G allows EVs to supply energy and/or services to the grid, through an collector, for compensation
Index Footings –V2G engineering, energy direction, sustainable energy system, PHEV, PEV, smart grid.
For over 100 old ages coal and fossil fuels have been used by power workss to bring forth the electricity used every twenty-four hours. The grid is a web of power line and substation that transporting electricity from power workss to places and industries. Today the grid has jobs, it needs updating its running capacity. When power line interruptions or power workss can’t produce adequate power, blackout can happen.
At the same clip, today’s grid frequently relies on a individual power beginning and does non supply elaborate information of use which makes hard to pull off electricity. To turn to these jobs in past we merely construct new power workss but now we are working on sustainability and cut down our dependant on fossil fuel.
To run into the demand of an extra energy by utilizing different engineerings has ever been a affair of great concern. As renewable energy engineerings have variable control outputs so that it needs to do stable. One such manner to cut down peak burden and to maintain electromotive force and frequence being stable is implementing Vehicle to Grid engineering ( V2G ) utilizing Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles ( P ( H ) EV’s ) . ( P ( H ) EV’s ) non merely supply an first-class and efficient mean of transit but besides better an environmental impact of green house gases. We can besides implement smart grid engineering for two manner communications between public-service corporations and clients to pull off greater efficiency and stableness in electric grids.
II. Related work
AC Propulsion [ 1 ] developed the first Vehicle to Grid ( V2G ) capable electric vehicle in the universe. One of tzero™ engineering ‘s most attractive and alone characteristics is the incorporate 20-kW bi-directional grid power interface. With bi-directional capableness, many new applications are opened up for electric thrust vehicles of all types, including distributed coevals, selling grid accessory services, automated battery diagnostic discharge testing, and utilizing vehicles to supply uninterruptible backup power to places or concerns. With Grid engineering enabling consumers greater entree to solar and weave power, AC ‘s tzero™ engineering will play a critical function in modulating and stabilising the grid, every bit good as buffering the natural fluctuations in power end product from immense solar and air current power installings.
Pacific Gas and Electric Company [ 2 ] showcased the first-ever public-service corporation Vehicle-to-Grid ( V2G ) engineering presentation. The presentation marks a milepost in the development of advanced engineerings to do electric vehicles providers of electricity to places and concerns. Pacific Gas and Electric Company ( PG & A ; E ) and BMW are working together to prove the ability of EV batteries to supply services to the electrical grid [ 3 ] .
Harmonizing to an IBM imperativeness release [ 4 ] , the company merely announced it has teamed up with American Honda Motor Co. , Inc. and Pacific Gas and Electric Company, PG & A ; E in order to ease a new pilot undertaking for a smarter communicating agencies between electric vehicles, EVs and our power grid.
Xcel Energy [ 5 ] announces six plug-in intercrossed electric vehicles ( PHEVs ) will be on the route by the terminal of 2007 as portion of a presentation trial of vehicle-to-grid ( V2G ) engineering by Xcel Energy. The undertaking, which will change over six Ford Escape Hybrids to PHEVs equipped with V2G engineering so each can bear down and dispatch power to and from the grid, is one of the nation’s first real-world presentations of the V2G engineering.
NREL ‘s [ 6 ] electric vehicle grid integrating work supports the development and execution of electrified transit systems, peculiarly those that integrate renewable-based vehicle bear downing systems. Plug-in electric vehicles ( PEVs ) —including all-electric vehicles and plug-in intercrossed electric vehicles—offer the chance to switch transit energy demands from crude oil to electricity, but wide acceptance will necessitate integrating with other energy systems.
The chief aim of this paper is to discourse the issues of electricity coevals, storage and transmittal and how we can work out these issues with the aid of smart grid and V2G engineering. Let’s say a tree falls on a power line and one 1000 places loose power. With a current grid you turn to be unpleased, frequently physically to redraw power which takes clip. With the smart grid, detectors and packages you will observe and instantly reroute the power around the job with in a limited clip. If the monetary value of electricity alterations throughout the twenty-four hours, we can see it with a current metre on our places. It may be expensive in extremum hours and cheap in late dark. With new smart metres at our places we can utilize air conditioner when the monetary value is inexpensive. This provides more control on energy measure and helps to forestall black out at peak hours.
The smarter grids besides mean a new ways to utilize renewable energy. Power coevals can now be distributed across multiple beginnings, so the system is more stable and efficient. It has an ability to pass on and pull off electricity that makes grid smarter and helps us to avoid firing more fossil fuels in the hereafter.
The necessary constituents which we need to do smart grids are:
- Smart Meters
- Phasor Measurement Unit
- Information transportation ( like Zigbee )
- Distributed Coevals
IV. Electric Vehicle
There are some developments that have changed our life for good. Developments without which an mundane life is merely no longer conceivable and there are some development that changes our life manner so fast. One of them is an electric vehicle ( EVs ) . It is an first-class mean of transit.
Electron volts are still equipped with an internal burning engine but now with intercrossed thrust system. Vehicle designs are altering faster than our outlooks. The ground for these developments is planetary alterations and major economic markets that desperately demand new constructs, but how of import a new vehicle construct? One thing that certain is to turn a entire electrification of the vehicle ; there is no inquiry about that. This is the existent chance for endeavors specialising in the electrical system and electronics.
Presently vehicle equipped with gasoline and Diesel engine adds up to 25 % of the world’s CO2emanations. But EVs are powered by electricity instead than fuel, which mean that they do non bring forth any CO2emanations. CO2contributes to the nursery consequence and is known as the “most of import durable “forcing” of clime change” . The nursery consequence is when the ambiance traps heat which leads to an addition in the temperature on the surface.
Electric Vehicles could give power back to the grid utilizing V2G engineering. For this a enormous investings will be needed to reenforce the grid and to present bear downing installations.
To do an electric vehicle V2G capable, each vehicle will be equipped with a V2G Connectivity Module that non merely controls vehicle bear downing but besides collects informations and communicates between public-service corporation and a vehicle proprietor. It besides contain a several kW ( such as 10kW ) inverter, motor and courser equipped with electric vehicle. V2G will besides provide server package enabling distant control of smart charging and V2G maps so that we can command the battery rhythms by remotely in instance of having a message of postpones the charging by the chief grid due to less handiness of power.
An electric vehicle can besides bear down wirelessly by agencies of resonating chambers. The wireless power transportation is based on a engineering called magnetic resonance yoke. Two Cu spirals are tuned to vibrate at the same natural frequence – like two vino spectacless that vibrate when a specific note is sung. The spirals are placed a few pess apart. One spiral is connected to an electric current, which generates amagnetic fieldthat causes the 2nd spiral to vibrate. This magnetic resonance consequences in the unseeable transportation of electric energy through the air from the first spiral to the receiving spiral. [ 8 ]
Plug-in intercrossed electric vehicles can besides bring forth power by agencies of regenerative braking system, in which we can change over kinetic energy in the signifier of electricity and shop it in storage batteries because electric vehicles ever rely on rechargeable batteries for power.
[ 7 ]
V. Vehicle To Grid Technology
In close hereafter the figure of electric vehicles may increase on roads which seem to be unneeded load over an electric grid but we have a solution in which electric thrust vehicles plays a major function as a portion of power grid operation and will supply valued services. The top outing power workss operate for a short period but it needs heavy investings when the needed demand is non fulfill by an bing grid. For this we have a V2G engineering to cut down the demand to put to a great extent in top outing power workss and storage.
Here an electric vehicle battery serves as a storage device which transfers its power to the grid when there is a peak shave. As 10s of 1000s or hundred of 1000 of electric vehicle are linking to the electric power systems we so looking at these vehicles since none merely bear downing from the grid but besides supplying power back to the grid for periods of exigencies or during regular operations to keep dependability of the power systems.
For a long term by we are looking these grid connected vehicles for supplying storage for renewable resources such as air current and solar. You can subsequently bear downing the plug-in electric vehicles in flushing or early forenoon hours that the electric grids can back up 100s of 1000s of electric vehicles by agencies of air current energy and so it return back to the grid when it is non in usage for transit so we do non necessitate to buy or construct new power workss. The control signal from the grid operator could be a broadcast wireless signal, a cell phone web, or power line bearer. The grid operator sends petitions for power to a big figure of vehicles. The signal may travel straight to each single vehicle, to a fleet operator, or through a third-party collector to despatch power from single vehicles. [ 9 ]
The markets now besides have immense decentralized nomadic energy storage system available that will consequence planetary energy trading. Electric grids have to travel the manner from the top down chief towards on bi-directional interacting with smart grids. Consecutive integrating in the smart grids will let maximal efficiency and sustainability keeps down energy cost for consumers and at the same clip significantly better grid stableness.
New smart interfaces will alter the energy market, single mobility will be guaranteed at all clip. Entire electrification of the vehicle lead a new sort of architecture of the vehicle with plentifulness of options ; regenerate maps in the vehicle and traveling towards better environment.
VI. V2G Pictorial View
VII. Schemes To Implement V2G
To develop a V2G Technology we must guarantee smooth operation of the system by supplying the undermentioned necessary operations:
- Enormous investings will be needed to reenforce the grid and to present bear downing installations.
- Plan to construct smart bear downing systems at assorted topographic points.
- Plan to construct smart communicating between public-service corporations and EV proprietors.
- Motivate industry of ( P ( H ) EVs ) with acceptable cost.
- Motivate battery makers for cost effectual V2G storage.
- Motivate Independent Power Produces toward execution
VIII. Conclusion & A ; Future Enhancements
[ 1 ] Acpropulsion.com, ‘AC Propulsion | Creating electric vehicles that people want to drive ‘ , 2015. [ Online ] . Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.acpropulsion.com/faqs.html.
[ 2 ] P. Company, ‘Pacific Gas and Electric Company Energizes Silicon Valley With Vehicle-to-Grid Technology ‘ ,Prnewswire.com, 2015. [ Online ] . Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/pacific-gas-and-electric-company-energizes-silicon-valley-with-vehicle-to-grid-technology-57952787.html.
[ 3 ] C. Morris, ‘Charged EVs | PG & A ; E and BMW squad up to prove V2G services ‘ ,Chargedevs.com, 2015. [ Online ] . Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //chargedevs.com/newswire/pge-and-bmw-team-up-to-test-v2g-services/ .
[ 4 ] Torquenews.com, ‘IBM, Honda and Pacific Gas and Electric Company Team Up For A Smart Grid – Torque News ‘ , 2015. [ Online ] . Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.torquenews.com/1079/ibm-honda-and-pacific-gas-and-electric-company-team-smart-grid.
[ 5 ] B. Media, ‘Green Car Congress: Xcel Energy Announces Six-Month Test of V2G and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles ‘ ,Greencarcongress.com, 2015. [ Online ] . Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.greencarcongress.com/2007/10/xcel-energy-ann.html.
[ 6 ] Nrel.gov, ‘NREL: Transportation Research – Electric Vehicle Grid Integration ‘ , 2015. [ Online ] . Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nrel.gov/transportation/project_ev_grid_integration.html.
[ 7 ] Animationoptions.com, ‘Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicle ‘ , 2015. [ Online ] . Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.animationoptions.com/photobphi/plug-in-hybrid-electric-vehicle.
[ 8 ] Phys.org, ‘Wireless power could revolutionise main road transit, research workers say ‘ , 2015. [ Online ] . Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //phys.org/news/2012-02-wireless-power-revolutionize-highway.html.
[ 9 ] Google Books, ‘Patent US20070282495 – System and method for measuring vehicle to grid ( v2g ) integrating ‘ , 2015. [ Online ] . Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.google.com.pk/patents/US20070282495.