A Clockwork Orange (Criminology Theories) Essay Sample

In the twelvemonth 1962. there was a male child by the name of Alex DeLarge. and he was the leader of a pack called the “droogs. ” He has three best friends named Georgie. Dim. and Pete who besides make up the entireness of the pack along with Alex. One dark. the male childs decide to acquire really drunk on milk laced with drugs. and travel out on a run of atrocious violent Acts of the Apostless. They beat an aged lady. contend a rival pack. steal a auto. about kill a adult male named Mr. Alexander. and ravish his married woman. After the following twenty-four hours. the droogs pack confronts Alex desiring more high-rewarding offenses. He beats his friends to a mush merely to demo them he is the foreman. Merely after this they break into a rich lady’s place where Alex kills the adult female but before he could get away. Dim smashes Alex’s face with a bottle of milk. The constabulary find Alex instead woozy and hemorrhage from the caput and apprehension him.

Alex is sentenced to 14 old ages of prison. but after the first two old ages he volunteers for an experiment called the Ludovico Technique. He is induced with a series of atrocious images of offense. and drugged with things that make him experience horrid. He shortly relates every bad thing he has of all time done with feeling awful. The church where this is run wants to halt the process because it is robbing Alex of his God-given right to freewill. He is released from prison after a presentation that shows Alex will ne’er perpetrate offense once more. He returns place to happen his room being rented out to another individual. so he is stateless. His friends are now police officers who find him merely to drag him out to the countryside and beat him senseless.

He happens upon the same house in the beginning of the film that he about beat Mr. Alexander to decease. Mr. Alexander tells him that his married woman died shortly after the raping. and locks him in a room while blaring some of the music that torments him into throwing up. He throws himself out the 2nd narrative window. and winds up in a infirmary where the physicians cure him of the Ludovico Technique. The film comes to a stopping point when Alex is presented with the same music that is supposed to do him experience atrocious. but alternatively he sees himself holding sex with adult females in a town square where the crowd is claping him.

Theories Used

Social Disorganization Theories
In the theory by Shaw and Mckay ( 1942 ) . there are five different life zones in big metropoliss or towns where people live. Each zone differs by features of the community. people themselves. and every offense rates. These zones are the Central Business District. Transitional Zone. Working Class Zone. Residential Zone. and Commuter Zone ( Shaw and Mckay 1942 ) . Now after Business Zone. each of the follow zones outwards has severally less and less offense. When people of low-income. people of minorities. or immigrants want to populate in a metropolis. they normally fall into the Transitional Zone. This is a zone where there is aggregate poorness. rapid population growing. disorganized offense. big scale upset. misgiving of neighbours. and huge cultural diverseness. Peoples populating in this country would happen it difficult to finish their ends. the inability to work out jobs. and socialise with their neighbours. All of the features described above can straight associate to interrupt Windowss theory which is where a vicinity that is falling apart. little offenses being committed. the people populating at that place have some of the qualities of Zone 2. so the offense rate will travel up. Slowly but certainly. if these offenses aren’t being stopped. people aren’t swearing each other. so offense rates will increase because the citizens of that metropolis will cognize they can acquire off with bigger and bigger offenses.

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Along with Social Disorganization. there is a term from Sampson and Raudenbush ( 1997 ) called Corporate Efficacy. When a vicinity has a deficiency of corporate efficaciousness. people do non swear one and other. Communities that lack Corporate Efficacy about ever have higher offense rates because neighbours will non name constabularies. non assist with any jobs of their community. and necessarily hold a community where there is no trust. and high offense. Corporate Efficacy may in fact be a bigger ground behind offense rates even over Race or Ethnicity. The willingness to move as a community and keep societal order can be a important measure to bettering the societal support of your neighbours. For illustration. in communities or vicinities where corporate efficaciousness is high. there are types of state of affairss where your nearby occupants can be counted on in times of demand. These types could be looking after kids for a short period of
clip. forestalling kids from perpetrating oblique Acts of the Apostless. and an overall betterment in the conditions of the vicinity ( Sampson and Raudenbush 1997 ) .

Differential Association/Social Learning Theory

Differential Association theory was designed by Sutherland and Cressey ( 1960 ) which has a construct that chiefly states condemnable behaviour is learned. The theory itself brings frontward nine separate points that’s described what can take to condemnable behaviour being learned. Some of those include ; condemnable behaviour is learned in interaction with other individuals. the scene is within intimate personal groups. techniques of perpetrating the offense are learned. a individual becomes delinquent because of an surplus of definitions favourable to misdemeanor of the jurisprudence. However the concluding point of this theory defines that while “criminal behaviour is an look of general demands and values. it is non explained by those general demands and values since non-criminal behaviour is an look of the same demands and values” ( Sutherland and Cressey 1960 ) .

Akers ( 1994 ) thought up the theory of Social Learning. This theory was used by criminologists to assist them better understand the significance behind Differential Association. Social Learning Theory includes four major societal constructions that can take an individual’s acquisition of aberrant behaviour or conformance. These include Differential Association. Definitions. Differential Reinforcement. and Imitation ( Akers 1994 ) . The first construction exposes the definitions of favourable or unfavourable condemnable Acts of the Apostless. Following that. definitions can be described as attitudes of significances attached to a given behaviour. Differential Support follows up by seeking to equilibrate the wagess and penalties that follow a behaviour. Finally. the imitation phase includes the battle in behaviours after the observation of another person’s similar behaviour. Acts of criminalism can happen in the absence of definitions. repeat of the act. or even being a portion of a group who acts in a non-conformal manner.

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Anomie/Strain Theory

Robert K. Merton ( 1936 ) created the theory known as Social Structure and Anomie Theory. This theory attempts to explicate why some societies have higher offense than others. Merton explains that the ground behind the high offense in
the United States is the “strong accent on the end on pecuniary success. and the weak accent on the legitimate norms for accomplishing that goal” ( Merton 1936 ) . He goes on to state that societies missing the strong adequate ordinance of these accomplishment seeking citizens are so characterized by a term called normlessness. Normlessness is defined as “loss of shared values and criterions of behavior” ( Merton 1936 ) . At the same clip Merton besides produces a construct of Strain which is on the micro degree of the theory. It states that people usually have the same civilized ends. but the agencies of accomplishing these ends are non legitimate. There are adaptations to strive which are a mixture of accepting/denying civilization ends. and accepting/denying institutionalised agencies. Crime rates in the United States could be defined by strain from Merton because the society of America as a whole agrees that the American Dream is a end that everyone strives for. nevertheless non everyone’s ways in which they reach that end are normal or legal.

Finally. General Strain Theory is a concept idea of by Agnew ( 1997 ) which distinguishes between the types of strain there are in the universe. He notes that there are three different types of strain. “failure to accomplish ends. remotion of positive stimulations. and presence of negative stimuli” ( Agnew 1997 ) . Agnew says that strain would happen followed by a condemnable act when any of the three types of strain hit an person. This is because strain leads to negative emotions. lowered self-denial. and the upbringing of larning about offense. If strain were to hit an single Agnew would reason that offense is likely to happen if negative emotions follow that general strain.

Application of Each Theory

Social Disorganization Theory
Alex grew up in a hapless portion of town. and his parents didn’t look after him. He was surrounded with poorness afflicted friends. people who didn’t like the pack he was in. and big graduated table upset. He decidedly lived in a Zone 2 type of vicinity because the constabulary were ever about. abandoned edifices and the inability to work out any jobs. Shaw and McKay ( 1942 ) say that in Zone 2. there are poverty afflicted family’s. misgiving between neighbours. and a batch of societal disorganisation that leads to higher offense rates. Alex’s little town where he lives can besides be said to non hold any corporate efficaciousness. which straight leads to high offense and aberrance rates ( Sampson & A ; Raudenbush. 1997 ) . Not holding your neighbours intervene if there were childs such as Alex jumping category. condemnable packs rolling the streets. or discourtesy in the community is precisely what was traveling on in Alex’s vicinity.

Differential Association/Social Learning Theory

The “droogs” which is the pack Alex is a member of can be described as an confidant group of friends where condemnable behaviour is learned. Throughout the first half of the film Alex partakes in Acts of the Apostless with his friends in which he deems acceptable because society doesn’t teach him otherwise. and he uses offense as a general demand of his ends and values. Besides. Social Learning theory can be applied every bit good because in Alex’s universe. there is no differentiation between favourable and unfavourable condemnable Acts of the Apostless. Throughout the film he commits colza. slaying. assault. larceny. and other offenses in which his attitude towards the Acts of the Apostless do non trouble oneself him at all.

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Anomie/Strain Theory

Anomie and Strain theories go hand-in-hand with Alex’s vicinity. and society because the ways in which people here reach their ends of pecuniary success and regard is obviously through offense. Everyone Alex interacts with is drug Sellerss. hoods. or stealers which make for the agencies in acquiring their ends merely to be with offense. Besides. the lowered self-denial that Alex possesses is so low that all of the ways in which he plans on seeking to do a life have to ensue in stealing money. ravishing adult females. or interrupting and come ining edifices to coup with his negative emotions.

Policy Changes
Social Disorganization Theory
I think that a topographic point for kids to travel after school when their clip is unsupervised would be a great manner to cut down offense rates because holding them involved in something instead than inquiring around with friends would be a better usage of their clip. Differential Association/Social Learning Theory

I think that an thought that would work out the acquisition of condemnable Acts of the Apostless would be to hold a category that would be required for every pupil that passes through classs 1-12. Just a little category possibly for a hebdomad that keeps learning that condemnable Acts of the Apostless are bad.

Anomie/Strain Theory

Again. holding another category that is taught through classs 1-12 about how to do money. I know there are economic sciences categories. but merely a simple category about holding occupations and take parting in society might assist to acquire rid of some strain for doing pecuniary success.


Agnew ( 1997 ) . Pressured Into Crime: General Strain Theory. In F. T. Cullen & A ; R. Agnew ( 2011 ) . Criminological theory: Past to show ( 4th erectile dysfunction. . pp. 189-197 ) . New York. New york: Oxford University Press

Akers ( 1994 ) . A Socially Learning Theory of Crime. In F. T. Cullen & A ; R. Agnew ( 2011 ) . Criminological theory: Past to show ( 4th erectile dysfunction. . pp. 130-142 ) . New York. New york: Oxford University Press
Merton ( 1938 ) . Socially Structure and Anomie. In F. T. Cullen & A ; R. Agnew ( 2011 ) . Criminological theory: Past to show ( 4th erectile dysfunction. . pp. 165-172 ) . New York. New york: Oxford University Press
Sampson and Raudenbush ( 1997 ) . A theory of Social disorganisation. In F. T. Cullen & A ; R. Agnew ( 2011 ) . Criminological theory: Past to show ( 4th erectile dysfunction. . pp. 112-117 ) . New York. New york: Oxford University Press

Shaw and Mckay ( 1942 ) . A theory of Social Disorganization. In F. T. Cullen & A ; R. Agnew ( 2011 ) . Criminological theory: Past to show ( 4th erectile dysfunction. . pp. 89-111 ) . New York. New york: Oxford University Press
Sutherland and Cressey ( 1960 ) . A Theory of Differential Association. In F. T. Cullen & A ; R. Agnew ( 2011 ) . Criminological theory: Past to show ( 4th erectile dysfunction. . pp. 126-129 ) . New York. New york: Oxford University Press